Thyroid hormones can have a major role in the normal growth and development of a human being. It is very important in case of brain development. The absence of this hormone in the first 6 months postpartum may lead to thyroid hypo functions, the most critical being cretinism accompanied by multiple morphological alterations in the brain.
Endemic cretinism is caused by iodine deficiency and occurs in the region of endemic goiter. Goiter may or may not be present. A defect in the synthesis of thyroid hormone can result in sporadic cretinism.
Until 4-5 months of age, cretinism is often not detected. If not treated properly, it may lead to dwarfism and mental retardation. Diagnosis must be made early to prevent this. A proper iodine replacement is the most used method to treat this illness.
Diagnosis must be made long before these changes are obvious in order to give a fully.